Toby is the Executive Director of the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT). He was previously the Head of Research and Policy for Digital Pathways of Oxford (based at the Blavatnik School) and, prior to that, ran the research and policy team for the Pathways for Prosperity Commission on Technology and Inclusive Development, a two-year commission of inquiry – chaired by Melinda Gates, Sri Mulyani Indrwati and Strive Masiyiwa – that reset the global discussion on how developing countries can navigate and take advantage of technological disruption. Prior to joining Oxford University, Toby worked as a civil servant in the Australian government, holding roles across several departments (Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Attorney-General’s Department, and Department of Human Services). His government experience was focused on domestic policy: social security, aged care, disaster management, housing, higher education, and public finances. Toby earned a Master of Public Policy (MPP) with distinction from the Blavatnik School of Government. His first degree was in science, a BSc (hons) with first-class honours from Flinders University, specialising in organic chemistry and molecular biology, which included a year of original research on drug synthesis.